Tuesday, April 18, 2017

My Mother & The Thinkers

Fine art appreciation, classical music and reading neutralize sting of Jim Crow.


Rodin - The Thinker
Rodin - The Thinker

When I was nine, my mother brought home a book on the French sculptor, François-Auguste-René Rodin (1840-1917). 



My mother loved art, any art--books, literature, paintings, sculpture, music, film, dance, photography, architecture, history, philosophy and intelligent conversation. But I was as confused about her handing this book over to me after she had read it as I was about her making me take ballet and piano lessons, which I am now convinced she insisted upon so that I could notate music to the songs she was writing, another story for another time. 

I remember that on the cover of the book was Rodin's The Thinker, a bronze and marble sculpture, which is now in the Musée Rodin in Paris. "Why do I have to read this book about Rodin?" I asked, mispronouncing his name in my childish innocence and ignorance. 

"Because I said you have to read it," my mother answered. "And because I refuse to raise an ignorant child who can't pronounce Rodin correctly."

"Oh," was all I could muster. "But why do I have to read this?"

"So you will learn to say his name correctly... Rodin," she pronounced it for me again and made me repeat it. "You can't go to college mispronouncing famous names." I knew I did not dare argue with her or just pretend I to read the book because she would quiz me on it like she did everything else. So, I read it.

Rodin Museum in Paris, France: Thinker Statue by François-Auguste-René Rodin (1840-1917)
Rodin Museum in Paris, France
When Rodin was 76 years old, he donated his own works of art and his art collection by other artists to the French government. My mother told me about his donation, which is now in the Rodin Museum.

Rodin Museum: Le Baiser
Rodin Museum: Le Baiser

My mother said people who create, participate in and appreciate art are better thinkers than those who do not. 


"Those interested in literature, music and art can handle conversation," she said. "It has to do with the way their brains work and how they decide to live; maybe because they use their minds in a different way."

Contrary to what I thought before starting the book about Rodin, I did find it interesting. Rodin's early education was not considered good enough to gain him entrance into the elite art academy and still he went on to be a foremost figure in the development of modern sculpture. His piece, The Thinker, became my favorite work of art, representing a superior intellectual quality like my mother's that I wished to possess. 

François-Auguste-René Rodin  (1840-1917)
François-Auguste-René Rodin 
(1840-1917)
How could my mother have known this man, this book and this sculpture would have that impact on me? 


Was she teaching me something about my own intellect, also considered inferior because I was attending a Jim Crow school at the time? 


My mother knew the book about Rodin was not the type of reading material our school library offered. 

She wanted me to know about people and places far away from my Jim Crow world, one of the reasons we traveled to other states where I could see what the rest of the world had to offer me. Starting when I was four years old my mother took me to the movies at the segregated theater downtown. Once the lights went down, I was transported to wherever the movie took me. . We would lose ourselves in the beautiful clothes and exotic locations. 

"Do not be afraid to explore art, film, books and traditions of other cultures," she always said. "That's how you learn." My mother believed in a global education.

While reading the book on Rodin, I learned that he was born in 1840 in Paris, France. That was the same time that, on this side of the Atlantic, slavery in America was still flourishing in the Deep South. Even as the Civil Rights Movement was in progress, it was unlikely that a little black girl would have been able to discover the genius of Rodin or others without someone like my mother to make the suggestion. At my mother's insistence on exposing me to higher concepts, I was reading about Rodin during the civil rights movement. 

There were people whom my mother admired in the world who were not directly associated with the sciences or the arts, but she believed if she could get inside their homes, she would find art hanging on the walls, many shelves of books and the music of the masters playing in the background. 


"Did you know Albert Einstein was also a musician?" My mother asked me.



The Musical Mind of Albert Einstein:  Great Physicist, Amateur Violinist  and Devotee of Mozart
"Who is that?" I asked her.

The Spring before I started first grade, Albert Einstein died. My mother was anxious to have me understand not only what the world had lost when this genius died, but also what the world had in him. 

"A genius," she said. 

"What's that?"

"A very smart person," she said.

"Like you?" I asked.

She laughed. "No, much smarter than me. He loved Mozart and used his music to help him develop his theories." 

There she goes again, I thought. I didn't understand what all of that meant. I was only five years old! 

And my mother's intellectual admiration did not stop at theoretical physicists. "I'll bet Dr. Martin Luther King and Rosa Parks know who Albert Einstein is," my mother said. Rosa Parks started the Montgomery Bus Boycott at the end of 1955 after I was in first grade. My mother kept up with all that news the same way she had kept up with the Supreme Court ruling in Brown v the Board of Education. She bought magazines and newspapers on her way home from work.

Rosa Parks Booking Photo, Montgomery Bus Boycott
Rosa Parks Booking Photo, Montgomery Bus Boycott
"You can hear culture in people's voices and in the way they use language," my mother said. "Reserved and elegant, those are the thinkers. Thinkers become doers." 


As history has recorded, both Rosa Parks and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., wrote books about their lives and experiences during the Civil Rights Movement, documenting those thoughts and the resulting actions.

We had a television in 1955, but there were a couple of problems. In our town, there was only one local station and it was quite conservative and limited broadcasts to those that were none offensive to the majority community. That meant very little to no coverage of Rosa Parks, the Montgomery Bus Boycott, Martin Luther King and the Civil Rights Movement. Secondly, my mother had her doubts that sitting in front of a screen too much was safe for the eyes or the brain. So, she restricted my television viewing to her approved list of programming. 

Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King booking photos
Rosa Parks & Martin Luther King
(Articles)

My mother received civil rights news through delivery of national black publications to our home on a weekly basis. She required me to read articles and then discuss them with her afterwards. Topics were confusing to me and not always a pleasant experience. I always enjoyed our discussions of art history more, perhaps because, as a child, art history was less intimidating than civil rights. When my mother made me read articles and books she had selected, I read them to be ready for her quizzes.

I read books and articles, and examined art because my mother said a person could not be just a collector of books and art. Art hanging on walls or books on shelves did not pass my mother's sniff test. The person who possessed the books and art had to know something about what was in the books, know about the art or know something about the artist who produce the art. An amateur artist herself, she liked to paint animals, birds and landscapes. My really wanted to me to be interested in art, too.

Brownie Hawkeye Camera 1950s
Brownie Camera
My grandmother bought me a Brownie camera when I was eight in exchange for not bothering her gun again. 

She got really upset when I sneaked the gun out of the house and tried to buy bullets at the corner market. But the storekeeper called my house and told my grandmother what I was up to. I tried to explain that I had a good reason, but no one would listen. 

My grandmother said my punishment was to use the camera to shoot whatever or whoever I needed to shoot, but not without asking them first. "Do not go sneaking around behind people's backs taking pictures of them," she said. "That is a good way to make enemies and to lose your camera privileges." Like I lost my gun privileges, I thought, hoping she wouldn't tell my mother about the gun.

My mother didn't ask why my grandmother bought me the camera, but she restricted my photography even further: Do not photograph people! She felt I would not be sufficiently respectful of their privacy and she was probably right. Although, looking back on it, I wouldn't call what I was doing photography. My photographs were awful. But my mother was delighted that I was interested in photography. "It's a form of fine art," she said. 


I wrote a story, Shooting Without A Gun, in my book, Bigmama Didn't Shop At Woolworth's, about Bigmama's gun and the camera. Take a look and join my channel.


My mother didn't say much about the incident with me and Bigmama's gun, but I am certain she had all to do with my grandmother giving me that camera.


Ansel Adams Moon and Half Dome Yosemite National Park, 1960
Ansel Adams
Moon and Half Dome
Yosemite National Park, 1960
My mother was particularly fond of sunsets, water, night skies, old buildings and sand. When I was about 11 years old, my mother bought postcards with Ansel Adams photography, saying I should model my own style of photography on his style, which she thought was magnificent. 

I had no photographic style. "Aim high!" She scolded. "And be sure and pack your camera when we go to the beach next weekend." My mother had a friend in Houston who was from a wealthy mortuary family with property in Galveston and one son my age. During the season, we often met her and her son at their beach cottage for weekends. My mother was always happy when her friend's older son, who was a professional photographer, joined us at the beach and let me tag along while he photographed nature scenes and explained lighting and photo composition. 

The summer of my 15th birthday, Aunt Clara took me to the mountains, where I wasted rolls of film trying to take shots as my mother had instructed, only to find out after the photographs were developed that I was no Ansel Adams, nor was I even close. I was very disappointed when I got home from vacation, and my mother and I reviewed my shots. Then, I realized the photography exercise was for my benefit. She was trying to help me develop an eye. 


I did eventually develop an eye for photography. My images were published in a significant reference book on the history of  photography. 



Reflections in Black: A History of Black  Photographers  1840 to the Present
Reflections in Black:
A History of Black 
Photographers
 1840 to the Present
My photography has been collected by a number of prestigious museums and libraries, published in books, newspapers and magazines, and exhibited around the world with a Smithsonian Exhibition, Reflections in Black: A History of Black Photographers 1840 to the Present. I credit my mother for my success by insisting that I take all those terrible pictures when I was a kid.

My mother was totally absorbed in art--the art of others in galleries, her own art creations, my crude and amateur photography or pictures in books. And she liked volumes, not just for the quantity, but for the matching binding. 

"Sets of books make you feel like you're in a library," she said. "The feel of art books and the smell of them make me want to paint or get knee-deep in some clay. You can't pretend to love art or know what's in books. Love and knowledge of these subjects come out in conversation, and if you're pretending, you will soon look the fool. Anybody with money can be advised on what art pieces to buy," she said. "The real test is finding a way to surround yourself with art if you are on a tight budget.

And a tight budget was something my mother knew all about. "But we can't let the lack of money keep us from enjoying the finer things," she said. "People need art in their lives, all people--rich and poor!" 

Bookmobile, converted bus
Converted Bus Bookmobile
When I was a little girl, our town did not allow us to use the segregated public library in the 1950s. Jim Crow laws ordered the public library to offer bookmobile services to neighborhoods. A bookmobile was a converted station wagon, van or bus with rows shelves with books, mostly outdated and tattered. The bookmobile was most active in summer and parked in public parks. 

Back then, until we were allowed to use the library, my mother and I took a Greyhound Bus 100 miles away to Houston to use the Houston Public Library. The trip to Houston was an all day affair, but worth it, even if we didn't qualify for library cards, not because we were not white, but because we were from out of town. We sat among all those art books on the shelves and read until it was time for us to catch our bus back home. My mother used the library, like she used movies, to imagine places we had never been, to see images from faraway places that one day we might see and to teach me to see myself as the Jim Crow south could not. 

From those movies and books, she imagined scenes, learned to paint oil landscapes and restored damaged art she bought in second-hand stores. She collected art, museum, gallery and exhibition books and often dragged me to out-of-town galleries and museums that allowed African Americans to enter if could afford a ticket. Afterwards, she bought greeting cards and program booklets that were not too expensive and she required me to make detailed critiques of shows we had seen.

My mother collected interior design,  architecture and art magazines, too. "Be careful with those," she told me. "They're not cheap." Sketching out plans for home improvement projects was a favorite past-time that my mother loved. Using her architecture and art magazines, and Vogue pattern decorating book, she measured and made multiple drawings before presenting them to my father to see if he could build whatever it was she wanted. Usually, he couldn't or wouldn't produce her final design or, if he did, she wasn't satisfied with the shortcuts he took. So, she went on to construct whatever small project she wanted to create. 

Art, music and literature were my mother's weapons against excuses, which she refused to accept. "Most often," she said, "You get what you give."

Auguste Rodin:  Master of Sculpture
I searched the Internet and could not find a copy of the Rodin book my mother gave me all those years ago. Perhaps the book is out of print. But I found some other interesting selections devoted to Rodin and others that trace art history from the Renaissance to Rodin and the birth of modern art.

Over the years, my mother's interests and book collections changed and I do not know what happened to the book about Rodin that she made me read. The book was probably not responsible for getting me a college scholarship or even getting me through Texas A&M University's Department of Journalism and Broadcast Communications. But my mother knew Rodin would have an influence on me at a time when I needed it most. 

~30~


Sunny Nash Author of Bigmama Didn’t Shop  At Woolworth’s
Sunny Nash
Author-Journalist
    Bigmama Didn’t Shop  At Woolworth’s  Sunny Nash

Hard Cover

Amazon Kindle
Sunny Nash, former nationally syndicated newspaper columnist, is the author of a nonfiction book about life before and during the Civil Rights Movement with her part-Comanche grandmother, Bigmama Didn’t Shop At Woolworth’s, selected by the American Association of University Presses as a Book for Understanding U.S. Race Relations, and recommended by the Miami-Dade (Florida) Public Library System for Native American Collections.

Sunny Nash is an award winning writer and three-time winner of Arts Council for Long Beach Professional Artist Fellowship Awards: 2003, 2009 and 2014-15. Her most recent Arts Council for Long Beach award is a 2016-17 grant for cultural heritage preservation programs, How a Child Build Legacy, designed to encourage young students to prepare archives of their accomplishments and plan for their future achievements.

Sunny Nash earned a Bachelor of Arts in Journalism & Mass Communication, Texas A&M University; Postgraduate Media Studies Certificate, Cronkite School of Journalism & Mass Communications, Arizona State University; Postgraduate Diploma, Instructional Technology, University of California, San Diego; Constitution Studies, James Madison’s Montpelier Center for the Constitution; and Postgraduate Digital Literacy Certificate, Simmons College Graduate School of Library & Information Science, Boston. Sunny Nash’s international studies include Intellectual Property Law, World Intellectual Property Organization Academy, Geneva, Switzerland; Diplomacy, Culture and Communication, United Nations; Research Methodology, Digital Preservation, Online Archival Information Systems, University of London; and Archival Data Governance, National Archives of Australia, Melbourne. 


© 2017 Sunny Nash. All Rights Reserved Worldwide.
 www.sunnynash.blogspot.com 
~Thank You~



Sunny Nash – Race Relations in America

Monday, April 17, 2017

Black Womanhood: Rosa Parks, Jim Crow and Lynching

Rosa Parks, Sojourner Truth, Harriet Tubman and Ida B. Wells created a century-long movement (1850s-1950s) against Jim Crow rape and lynching of black women and girls.


Photo: Rosa Parks (right) & Attorney, Charles Langford February 22, 1956 Photo: Academy of Achievement
Photo: Rosa Parks (right) & Attorney, Charles Langford
February 22, 1956 Photo: Academy of Achievement

Martin Luther King knew the value of female supporters to the efforts of civil rights. 



Rosa Parks and other women active in the Civil Rights Movement worked closely with the NAACP, much of whose work centered on the investigation of mob rapes and lynchings of black women and girls.

Some experts say that the great northern migration was caused, in part, by thousands of reported and unreported rapes and lynchings of black women and girls in the south. At home, husbands, brothers and fathers were ashamed of their helplessness to protect their women from this violence. Some black men were intimidated by the unjust legal system. Other black men knew they would lose their jobs if they reported a crime against a white man. Still other black men blamed the black woman for sexual offenses against her body, and made her the target for even more abuse at home, influencing young black men's oppressive attitudes of toward women of their own race. 

If home was not safe, where could a black woman or girl feel safe? While white women also were intimidated and abused at home and work, the story of the black woman and other women of color in America shows that much of mainstream society viewed the womanhood of black and other women of color as worthless, rendering them unworthy of consideration, civil rights or personal dignity.

But somehow, black women and other women of color withstood it all, beginning in the early decades of the nation with female activists like Sojourner Truth and Harriet Tubman, Ida B. Wells, Rosa Parks and many others.



Truth made the speech eight years before her monumental meeting with President Abraham Lincoln at the White House to discuss the issue of enlisting black troops into the Union Army against the Confederacy, which Lincoln eventually accomplished. Two years later, Union victory over the Confederacy ended the Civil War and freed U.S. slaves under the order of the president, who was assassinated soon after. 

Truth's life and message spoke to the heart of civil rights, the protection of black womanhood in the same voices Rosa Parks would use more than one hundred years later. Sojourner Truth's significant anti-slavery activism in the 1850s-60s inspired and instructed future generations before Rosa Parks' anti-Jim Crow movement one hundred years later. 



Let us not forget Harriet Tubman.


Harriet Tubman Union Soldier, Spy & Abolitionist Underground Railroad National Historic Park National Parks Service
Harriet Tubman
Union Soldier, Spy
& Abolitionist
Underground Railroad
National Historic Park

National Parks Service
Harriet Tubman was born a slave in 1822 on a Maryland plantation. Throughout her childhood, she was beaten and brutalized by various slave owners, one of which inflicted upon her a near-fatal head injury, causing severe trauma and symptoms throughout the remainder of her life. But nothing deterred her from her calling to bring freedom to her people, helping thousands to escape slavery through the Underground Railroad. During the Civil War, Tubman was an armed Union soldier and spy. 

Harriet Tubman died at age 91 in 1913, the year Rosa Parks was born.

In the 1890s, journalist, Ida B. Wells (1852-1932), protested lynching and rape of black women, which was still at the heart of civil rights. 


Anti-lynching Crusaders  NAACP Button 1900
Anti-lynching Crusaders 
NAACP Button 1900
Ida B. Wells, an Anti-lynching Crusader, within the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), raised protests against lynching, urging the Legislature to confront the problem in 1918 in a bill intended to punish state, county and local officials for not ending lynching in their locales and for failing to create an atmosphere to end the practice altogether. Although the House of Representatives passed anti-lynching laws three times, none of the efforts passed in the U. S. Senate. Finally on Monday, June 13, 2005, four months before Rosa Parks died on October 24, 2005, the Senate apologized for not passing anti-lynching laws that were encouraged by Ida B. Wells.

Ida B. Wells Author, Journalist,  Scholar, Social Activist
Ida B. Wells
Author, Journalist, 
Scholar, Social Activist
In Southern Horrors and Other Writings: The Anti-Lynching Campaign of Ida, 1892-1900Ida B. Wells-Barnett exposed lynching as a method to halt and further discourage economic growth of African Americans and other ethnic groups, as well as to support the erroneous notion of white supremacy. Wells was only years old when the monumental Supreme Court decision, Plessy v Ferguson sanction separate but equal in the United States and, thereby legalized segregation of the races in all aspects of American life, public and private.

In her book, Wells demonstrated that black women, who had become easy targets for sexual predators during slavery, were equally vulnerable to violent attacks after abolition. Because many black men were dependent on the mainstream community for jobs, they were unable to defend their women without stiff consequences. Upon this sordid story providing the background for her own life, Wells built her career as a journalist, writer, scholar and social activist.

Racially motivated sexual assaults have been told and retold in books and oral accounts throughout American history, starting during slavery. At the end of these frightening stories, posses seldom rode out looking for rapists of black women and girls.

Between 1882 and 1968 more than 150 black women and girls were lynched in the United States, some for no reason other than entertainment; some for minor crimes; others for trying to protect their children. 

Woven into the civil rights battles that Rosa Parks fought for were the protection of black woman from verbal, physical and sexual abuse, and assaults by men hiding under white sheets and behind Jim Crow laws, a legal system that protected white sex offenders into the mid-1960s, a system against which black women had no insurances from the law or comfort in the protection of society. 


Laura Nelson shot the sheriff.

Photo: Laura Nelson and her son lynched  1911 from a (now demolished) railroad near Okema, Oklahoma
Photo: Laura Nelson and her son lynched 
1911 from a (now demolished) railroad near Okema, Oklahoma
In 1911, Laura Nelson tried to protect her son from a posse accusing him of stealing. Certain they had come to lynch him, the mother knew the posse would not listen to her defense of her son. During the fierce struggle that took place outside Laura Nelson's home, fighting for her life and the life of her son, she shot the sheriff. The posse took her and her son from their home and placed them under arrest. A crazed mob formed outside the jailhouse where she and her son were being held in a cell on multiple charges. A mob of 40 men gathered outside the jail, broke inside overtaking the jailer and taking the mother and son from their cell. Outside, Laura was raped multiple times. Afterwards, she and her son were taken to the (now demolishedrailroad bridge over the Canadian River outside Okema, Oklahoma, in Okfuskee County, where they both were lynched. But not for justice--for the excitement and entertainment of it all. 

Lynchings were popular outdoor events, drawing large crowds of men, women and children. Photographers commemorated lynching events on post cards for sale to audiences that sometimes bought multiple copies of lynching photo postcards to mail to family and friends in distance places. 

That's just the way things were in Laura Nelson's world. The dreadful prospect of rape, followed by a rope became horrifying facts of a black woman's reality during the Jim Crow era. Language in the laws did not literally sanction rape. But at the time, attitudes of some southern lawmen toward black women who tried to bring legal charges against sexual predators were laughed out of court. Instead of justice, retribution against the complaining black woman, her family and her community was certain. 

Photographic documentation of lynchings bore witness to what so many black women and other women of color feared and fought to change. 


The 1911 Laura Nelson lynching occurred two years before Rosa Parks was born and served as a continual reminder to Rosa Parks and every other black woman and girl in the nation of the possibility that this same thing could happen to them. Fear entangled with frustration and courage were the driving forces of the civil rights reform that Rosa Parks would tackle some forty-four years later trying to bring an end to lynching and discrimination in America, and may have contributed to Rosa Parks taking the 1944 Recy Taylor case.

Photo: Rosa Parks & E.B. Nixon

Photo: Rosa Parks & E.B. Nixon

Learning about the gang rape of Alabama wife and mother, Recy Taylor, by seven white men on her way home from church in 1944 led the Montgomery NAACP president, E.B. Nixon, to ask his best investigator to look into the matter. That investigator was 31-year-old Rosa Parks (1913-2005), an anti-rape crusader specializing in sexual assaults against black women in Jim Crow Alabama. By taking the Recy Taylor case, Parks launched a movement aimed directly at sexual assault against African American women and girls. 

There is no evidence that Rosa Parks personally experienced sexual assault at the hands of a white or black man. However, she was a beautiful black woman in a racist environment where the rape of white women was considered legitimate rape and the rape of black women was not. It is probable that Parks was assaulted--if not sexually--verbally and shown casual disrespect at some time in her life under Jim Crow laws in Alabama.

Letter Rosa Parks to Alabama Governor Chauncey Sparks From: Scottsboro Stories
Letter Rosa Parks to Alabama Governor
Chauncey Sparks
From: Scottsboro Stories
Rosa Parks was unable to win the Recy Taylor case. Other victims remained silent about bringing rape charges against white men because they knew juries would not consider their sexual violation a legitimate rape. In the opinions of the white juries, only white women could be legitimately raped. 

Further, black women were ashamed having their predicament publicized, fearing ridicule in their own communities and expecting physical harm to their families. 

After the rape, Recy went public to the sheriff. Her father, fearing for the lives of his daughter, her husband and their -year-old daughter, did what a father could do to protect them. He perched in a tree outside Recy's home with a shotgun, the only insurance against racist violence he could provide his daughter. Still, Recy Taylor's home was bombed.

Eleven years after the Recy Taylor case, Rosa Parks sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott. After more than a year, the Montgomery Bus Boycott dismantled Jim Crow laws, the legal system that permitted racial discrimination in housing, education, services, legal representation, voting, employment, public transportation, accommodations, and unchecked sexual abuse of American black women and girls and, to a large extent, any non-white woman of a disregarded ethnic group. Sexual affronts, offenses and abuse did not end with the Montgomery Bus Boycott, which earned Rosa Parks the title, Mother of the Civil Rights Movement. However, resulting legislation led to further legislation, which did bring to an end the routine rape and lynching of black women, closing a very sad chapter in American history.

The last recorded lynching of black woman in the United States was in 1957, the year following the Montgomery Bus Boycott. When I was a little girl, I never knew a man or woman who was lynched. There were stories, though, in my own neighborhood of powerful men going freely into certain homes and raping females within the household with the male head of the household sitting on the porch, helpless to protect his wife or daughters. This was the ultimate in violation of a family's civil rights, deliberate intimidation of a community and the very heart of the civil rights struggle taken on by Rosa Parks. 

Rosa Parks walked in the clearly laid path of Sojourner Truth, Harriet Tubman and Ida B. Wells-Barnett who meticulously created the foundation for fighting violence against women of color.

~30~



Sunny Nash Author of Bigmama Didn’t Shop  At Woolworth’s
Sunny Nash
Author-Journalist
    Bigmama Didn’t Shop  At Woolworth’s  Sunny Nash

Hard Cover

Amazon Kindle
Sunny Nash, former nationally syndicated newspaper columnist, is the author of a nonfiction book about life before and during the Civil Rights Movement with her part-Comanche grandmother, Bigmama Didn’t Shop At Woolworth’s, selected by the American Association of University Presses as a Book for Understanding U.S. Race Relations, and recommended by the Miami-Dade (Florida) Public Library System for Native American Collections.

Sunny Nash is an award winning writer and three-time winner of Arts Council for Long Beach Professional Artist Fellowship Awards: 2003, 2009 and 2014-15. Her most recent Arts Council for Long Beach award is a 2016-17 grant for cultural heritage preservation programs, How a Child Build Legacy, designed to encourage young students to prepare archives of their accomplishments and plan for their future achievements.

Sunny Nash earned a Bachelor of Arts in Journalism & Mass Communication, Texas A&M University; Postgraduate Media Studies Certificate, Cronkite School of Journalism & Mass Communications, Arizona State University; Postgraduate Diploma, Instructional Technology, University of California, San Diego; Constitution Studies, James Madison’s Montpelier Center for the Constitution; and Postgraduate Digital Literacy Certificate, Simmons College Graduate School of Library & Information Science, Boston. Sunny Nash’s international studies include Intellectual Property Law, World Intellectual Property Organization Academy, Geneva, Switzerland; Diplomacy, Culture and Communication, United Nations; Research Methodology, Digital Preservation, Online Archival Information Systems, University of London; and Archival Data Governance, National Archives of Australia, Melbourne. 


© 2017 Sunny Nash. All Rights Reserved Worldwide.
 www.sunnynash.blogspot.com 
~Thank You~
Sunny Nash – Race Relations in America